Category: Blog

Primary and secondary education in the European Union: 5 questions to understand the heterogeneity of national education systems

As the European Union seeks to boost all possible engines of economic growth, education is among the key factors for a smart and inclusive growth. The start of the new school year is an ideal time to look at the different ways in which education systems operate in Europe. This article provides an overview of national education systems in the European Union, particularly for primary and secondary education

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Next Generation EU: a time-bomb, or a new lease of life?Understanding the EU recovery plan in 5 questions

The European recovery plan, named Next Generation EU, was launched in the heart of the pandemic crisis that began in early 2020. This recovery plan truly represents a project of unprecedented scale in the European construction history. But the EU is a complex thing, difficult to grasp for the uninitiated as the institutional mechanism is so difficult to understand. This recovery plan can be a cornerstone for the future of the European, but can also become the painful indicator of the institutional dysfunctions of the EU. 1. Next Generation EU, what does it mean? Next Generation EU is intended...

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Towards a More Resilient European Union after the COVID-19 Crisis

The pandemic crisis constitutes an unprecedented challenge for the European Union and for the Euro Area. Indeed, European institutional architecture can be viewed as being half-way between an association of sovereign states (like the United Nations, for example) and a politically integrated federation (like the United States for example). In this original construction, competences on several matters (such as economic, political, social and health issues, etc.) are shared at the European level, but also at the national and local levels in more complex ways than in fully integrated federations. To improve the resilience of the European Union to violent external shocks, the main objective of this paper...

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Europe’s Hamiltonian moment… Again

In these dark times of ’Coronacoma’ for the World Economy, the European Monetary Union is on the brink…Again. This time, it could be truly different. Countries opposed to any kind of debt mutualization properly ordered hinder de facto the achievement of a federal leap that it is desperately needed to complete the monetary union. Without this giant leap, there are real risks of implosion for the eurozone and, even, the whole EU. This brief note tries to explain why the US historical experience could be inspiring for Europeans in a situation where the concept of radical uncertainty is especially...

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The long-term growth impact of the pandemic

The economic effects of the Covid-19 pandemic are devastating worldwide. The IMF is projecting that the world economy will contract by 3% in 2020, before rebounding by 5.8% in 2021. The V-shaped recovery is predicated on the pandemic receding in the second half of 2020. A U-shaped scenario, with a prolonged recession, is also possible if the pandemic lingers, or if the recession triggers banking and/or sovereign debt crises. Will GDP growth get back to its pre-crisis trend in the aftermath the pandemic? Is an L-shaped scenario likely, with a permanent decline in the growth rate? Uncertainty surrounding the...

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